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D Pharma 1st year Pharmaceutical Chemistry Notes

D.Pharma 1st year Pharmaceutical Chemistry notes. In this article, We will provide D.Pharmacy 1st year notes. D. Pharmacy 1st year pharmaceutical chemistry 1 notes are available

All the d pharmacy notes are prepared by renowned professors from different Universities of India. The d pharmacy 1st Year pharmaceutical chemistry notes are prepared according to the PCI (Pharmacy Council of India) syllabus.

D pharmacy 1st Year notes will help the students to take preparation for the d pharmacy 1st Year final examination.

PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY – I 

D. Pharmacy First Year  

Question No. 01. What are Antacids? Describe the combination of antacid preparation with examples and 

explain Aluminium hydroxide.  

Question No. 02. (a) What are acids and bases? Discuss the various concepts about acids and bases.  

(b) What is radiopaque? Explain with an example. 

(c) What are the official preparations for iodine? Describe povidone iodine, ammoniated mercury &  chlorinated lime. 

Question No. 03. Define Radiopharmaceuticals. What are the biological effects of radiation and  storage conditions of radiopharmaceuticals? Discuss methods of quality control of active  pharmaceutical ingredients as per pharmacopeia.  

Question No. 04. Describe the principle and procedure involved in the limit test for Arsenic and 

Sulphate.  

Question No. 05. Describe in detail the sources of impurities in pharmaceutical chemicals. Give  the importance 

of quality control of the drugs.  

Question No. 06. Define electrolyte replacement therapy. What is the role of major intra and extra-cellular electrolytes? Explain the preparation, properties, and uses of sodium chloride.  

Question No. 07. Give each compound’s physical and chemical properties and uses.  (a) Borax (b) Alum (c) Boric Acid (d) Zinc sulfate (e) Zinc chloride  

Question No. 08. What are Antidotes? Explain their mechanism & discuss cyanide poisoning in  detail.  

 

Question No. 09. 

(a) Define anions and cations. Describe identification test for Na+, K+, Ca++, Cl , SO4– – 

and HCO3.  

(b) Describe the limit test for Iron. 

Question No. 10. Write a short note on the following:  

(a) Antimicrobials (b) Astringents (c) Protective and adsorbent (d) Antioxidants (e) Expectorant  and Emetics  

Question No. 11. 

(a) Discuss in brief the dental products.  

(b) Define the buffer solution. How many types of buffer solutions are there? Explain.  

Question No. 12. Write down: 

(a) Chemical formula and use of laughing gas 

(b) Pharmaceutical uses of nitrogen 

(c) Composition of soda lime 

(d) Buffer capacity 

(e) Temperature range for storage of drugs under cold conditions and cool condition 

(f) Differentiate very soluble and freely soluble salts.  

Question No.13. Write storage conditions of the following compounds; iodine, normal saline solution, chlorinated lime, and sodium hydroxide. Also, explain why  

Question No. 14. Write a note on physiological acid-base balance.  

Question No. 15. (a) Write down the theory of limit test for chloride.  

(b) Name four official compounds of calcium and explain the physiological role of calcium in  the human body.  

Question no. 16. What is the principle of the Geiger muller counter?  

ANSWERS: 

Question No. 01. What are Antacids? Describe the combination of antacid preparation with examples and explain aluminum hydroxide.  

Ans. Antacids: Antacids are substances that on ingestion react with the gastric acid and lower  the acidity of gastric contents. They produce a symptomatic relief of heartburn, and pain and also  reduce spasms in addition to relief from the uncomfortable feeling of overeating and growing  hungry feeling between meals. Antacids are weak bases and they raise the gastric pH above 4 by  neutralizing excess gastric hydrochloric acid, which may be causing pain and possible ulceration.  One may also use antacids to inactivate proteolytic enzyme, pepsin.  

Ideal characteristics of antacids: No antacid is ideal but preferably an antacid should have the following  

properties:- 

  1. i) It should not be absorbable or cause systemic alkalosis.  
  2. ii) It should not interfere with the absorption of food.  

iii) Antacids should not be a laxative or cause constipation.  

  1. iv) Antacid should have a buffer nature in the pH 4-6 range.  
  2. v) They should probably inhibit pepsin.  

Examples are: – (a) Sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3 (b) Aluminium hydroxide Al(OH)3 (c) Calcium carbonate CaCo3 (d) Magnesium carbonate  

Antacids can be classified into two types:  

  1. Absorbable or systemic antacids: Which are soluble, readily absorbable and capable of  producing systemic electrolytic alterations and alkalosis e.g. sodium bicarbonate. 
  2. Non-absorbable or non-systemic antacids: These are not absorbed to a significant extent  and thus do not exert an appreciable systemic effect e.g. Calcium carbonate, Aluminium phosphate  and Aluminium hydroxide. 

Combination of antacid preparation:- As no single antacid meets all the requirements for an ideal  antacid, so combination of antacid are used to balance constipation effect of calcium with laxative  effect of aluminium compounds. So these products contain a fast acting antacid, which one  supposedly having longer duration of action.  

Some commonly used combinations are:-

  1. i) Aluminium hydroxide gel – Magnesium hydroxide combination  
  2. ii) Aluminium hydroxide gel – Magnesium trisilicate combination  

iii) Calcium carbonate – Hydroxide gel & magnesium containing antacid combination  iv) Alginic acid containing antacid combination  

Aluminium hydroxide:  

Chemical formula: Al (OH) 3  

It occurs in two forms:  

  1. Aluminium hydroxide gel  
  2. Dried Aluminium hydroxide gel  

Properties: It is a white, light, odourless, tasteless amorphous powder. It is practically insoluble  in water and alcohol, soluble in dilute mineral acids and in solutions of alkali hydroxides. It is  amphoteric in nature and is slightly affects both red and blue litmus papers.  

Uses:  

  1. It is used as mild astringent and desicant.  
  2. It is used in the treatment of diarrhoea & cholera.  

Question No. 02. What are acids and bases? Discuss about the various concepts about acids and  bases.  

Ans. 2 Acids & Bases: Acids and bases are the substances or liquid which play an important role  in pharmaceutical chemistry. These are required not only in the manufacture & quality assurance  of drug, but are also required as pharmaceutical aid & necessities in dispensing pharmaceutical 

for their stability, compatibility & optimum distribution in various physiological system. At  present there are several concepts or theories of acids & bases. All of them are variations of the  well known classical Arrhenius theory of ionization concept. One interpretation may be better  suited than other, depending upon the particular acid base reaction or the system involved.  

Theories of acids and bases: The various theories of acids and bases are as follows:  

1) Arrhenius concept: It was the first concept given by scientist Arrhenius. According to him acid  is the  

substance which yield H+ion [hydrogen ion] in water and conversely bases are substances, which  releases  

hydroxyl ion [OH] in water. For example:  

Aqueous Media  

HCl H+ + Cl[Strong acid] 

Hydroxyl ion  

NaOH Na++ OH[A base]  

Disadvantage:  

  1. i) It does not explain the basic nature of ammonia [NH3], however it does not liberate hydroxyl  ion.  
  2. ii) It does not explain the acidic nature of CO2; however it does not liberate hydrogen ion [H+].  iii) It explains the acidic and basic nature only in presence of water.  
  3. Bronsted-Lowry concept: According to this concept an acid is a substance that can  donate a proton. So it is called proton donor. Whereas base is a substance which can accept a  proton i.e., it is called proton acceptor. 

For example:HCl + H2O H3O++ Cl 

Acid Base  

  1. Lewis concept: According to this concept, base is a substance, which is electron pair  donor and acid is a substance, which is electron pair acceptor. Lewis base is also called  nucleophillic and Lewis acid is also called Electrophillic. For example: Lewis bases are  Ammonia, Amine and Ether.

Advantage:  

  1. i) This concept also includes those reactions in which no protons are involved.  
  2. ii) It explains the long accepted basic properties of metallic oxides and acidic properties of  non-metallic oxides.  
  3. Usanovich concept: According to this concept acid is a chemical species, which is capable of  combining with anions or electrons or giving up cations. Conversely, a base is a chemical species,  which is capable of giving up anion or electrons or combining with cation. SO3+ Na2 O Na2 SO4  

Acid Base Salt  

Fe (CN)2 + 4 KCN 4 Acid Base  

Salt  

Advantage: It explains all the acids and bases.  

Question 3: What are the radiopaques? Explain with example.  

Ans. 3 Radio–Opaque contrast media (radiopaques): The X-ray contrast media are the chemical compounds which have the ability to absorb X-rays and block the passage of X-rays. Thus they  are opaque to X- ray examination. X-rays are capable of passing through most soft tissues. When  a photographic film or a photosensitive plate is placed opposite to the X-ray source through  patient’s body/organ portions, the film or plate is darkened in an amount proportional to the  number of X-rays that are able to pass. Bony structures, cartilage and teeth are capable of blocking  the passage of X-rays and appear light on exposed X-ray film. But skin and soft structures, being  less dense and they appears only as shadows on X-ray film. So to make a correct diagnosis of soft  organ, radiopaques substances are used. Radiopaques substances have no pharmacodynamic effect  in the body. The most common example of contrast media is barium sulphate.  

Barium sulphate:  

Synonym: Barium meal  

Chemical formula: BaSO4  

Preparation: It is prepared from a solution of Barium chloride with cold dilute H2SO4 or soluble  sodium  

sulphate. BaCl2 + H2SO4 BaSO4 + 2 HCl  BaCl2 + Na2SO4 BaSO4 + 2 

NaCl The Barium sulphate precipitated, washed and dried.  

Properties: It is a fine, white powder free from gritty particles, odorless and tasteless and insoluble  in water 

and organic solvent. It dissolves in concentrated H2SO4 with the formation of bisulphate salt.  BaSO4 + H2SO4 Ba [HSO4]2  

Storage: Store in well-closed containers.  

Uses:  

  1. i) Barium is given only by its salt i.e. Barium sulphate. Its salt is given to identify location  of ulcers in  

G.I.T. wherever ulcer is formed.  

  1. ii) It is also used on respiratory muscles and muscles of cardiovascular system but cause  toxicity. iii) In G.I.T. mucosa, cells absorb BaSO4 and ulcer spot is identified with the  help of X-Ray film.  

Question 4: What are official preparations of iodine? Describe povidone iodine, ammoniated  mercury & chlorinated lime. 

Ans. 4 Preparation of Iodine: Iodine is used an antimicrobial agent acts by formation of hypoiodous  acid (HIO) which is six times more effective than hypochlorous acid it is used for disinfecting  unbroken skin.  

Iodine deficiency causes goiter for this purpose iodized salts with sodium iodides.  There are various types of iodine solution:- 

  1. Aqueous iodine solution B.P. /I.P. (1966).  
  2. Weak Iodine solution B.P. /I.P. (1966).  
  3. Strong iodine solution I.P. (1966).  
  4. Iodine tincture U.S.P.  
  5. Iodine Povidone ointment. 

(i) Povidone iodine: It is a complex of iodine with a polymer povidone [poly (2-oxo, pyrrolidin 1ethylene)]. 

Physical properties: It is yellowish brown, amorphous powder, characteristic iodine odour, soluble  in water and 95% ethanol but practically insoluble in chloroform and acetone.  

Storage: It should be stored in airtight containers.  

Uses:  

  1. It is used as antiseptics for surgical scrubs and pre- operative antisepsis of the skin.  2. It is also used in gargles and mouthwashes for the treatment of infections in the oral cavity.  3. The solution of povidon iodine is also use for vaginal candidacides.  

(ii) Ammoniated Mercury:  

Synonyms: White precipitate, aminochloride of mercury  

Chemical formula: NH2HgCl  

Preparations: It is prepared by treatment of 5% mercuric chloride solution with 20% dilute  ammonia solution. The precipitate is collected, washed with cold water and dried below 30o C.  

HgCl2 + 2NH3 NH2HgCl + NH4 Cl  

(Precipitates)  

Physical properties: It is white powder, odorless, practically insoluble in water, alcohol and ether.  Storage: It should be protected from light & stored in well closed containers.  

Uses: It is used as anti-infective. It is used externally in the form of ointments to destroy  threadworm and in staphylococcal infections of skin and in psoriasis.  

Disadvantage: Excess uses of ammoniated mercury develop chronic toxicities therefore prolonged  use is not recommended. 

(iii) Chlorinated lime:  

Synonyms: Bleaching powder, Chlorinated lime, Chloride of lime  

Chemical formula: Ca (OCl)Cl  

Preparation: It is prepared by passing chlorine gas over dry calcium hydroxide in a lead chamber  for 18-24  

hours. Ca (OH) 2 + Cl2 Ca (OCl) Cl + H2O  

Physical properties: It is a dry, dull white powder with characteristic odour. It is slightly soluble in  water and in alcohol.  

Storage: It should be stored in well closed container. It slowly decomposes with loss of chlorine.  Uses:  

1) Used as bleaching agent.  

2) Used in preparations of detergents.  

3) Used as disinfectant in wounds and swimming pools.  

Question No. 05. Define radiopharmaceuticals. What are biological effects of radiations and  storage conditions of radiopharmaceuticals? Discuss method of quality control of active  pharmaceutical ingredient as per pharmacopoeia.  

Ans. Radiopharmaceuticals: The compounds or substances which emit radiations (alpha, beta, and gamma) continuously and which are used in medicines are called as radiopharmaceuticals.  

Biological effects of radiations: Effect of radiations on biological tissues is known as biological  effect of radiations. Radiations have dangerous effects on biological tissues depending on ability  of radiations to penetrate the tissue, energy of radiation, surface area exposed etc. The radiations  promote a number of irreversible changes in living cells. These are: 

  1. The chemicals, changes either the pH or initiate free radical chain reactions and forms  peroxides and  

other toxic substances.  

  1. These can create necrosis and ultimately complete destruction of cell, tissue or organ.  
  2. The toxic substances produced from reactions of free radicals after DNA in cells and cause  cross linking between amino acids and proteins. This leads to various defects in body. The  reaction of free radicals occurs in following steps:- 

(I) Chain Initiation  

Radiation  

H2O H. + HO.  

Particles  

(II) Chain propagation  

H2O + H. H2 + .OH  

H2O+OH. H2O2 + H.  

(III) Chain termination  

H.+H. H2  

  1. + OH. H2O2  
  2. + OH. H2O  

Handling and storage: A care should be taken to protect people and personnel from harmful  radiations during handling and storage of radioactive material. The following precautions are taken  as:  

  1. These materials should be handled with forceps or suitable instruments and direct contact  should be  

avoided.  

  1. Any substance that is taken internally [food, drinks], should not be carried in laboratory.  3. Sufficient shielding must be provided on protective cloths.  
  2. Sufficient protective clothing must be used while handling the materials.  5. Disposal of radioactive materials should be done with great care. 

Methods used for quality control: The pharmacopoeial monograph of each compound/product is  the a guiding document. A substance is required to confirm with the following parameters:  

  1. Description: Statements of those superficial qualities that can be determined without  formal scientific examination e.g. colour, crystalline form, odour, taste etc. 
  2. Identification: It includes various specific and non-specific tests; physical constants and spectrophotometric matching. 
  3. Method of assay: – The term assay is used in the pharmacopoeias for the quantitative  deterioration of principal ingredients of the official substance and their preparations. This is  quantitative determination of principal ingredients by gravimetric or volumetric or instrumental  or biological method, etc. 
  4. Tests for purity: – I.P prescribes tests for purity of almost all the official substances.  These tests include melting point, boiling point, weight per ml., limit tests for chlorides,  sulphates, iron, heavy metals, lead and arsenic, specific optical rotation, sulphated ash, loss  drying, pH of solution etc. as may be applicable for the substance. There are over 130 different  categories of tests mentioned in the pharmacopoeia in respect of inorganic pharmaceutical  substances. Certain tests which are performed on the substances are: 
  5. a) Colour, odour and taste- Though these have limited values, still they are useful in  determining whether the substance is reasonably pure, hygienic etc. or not, especially when other  tests for purity are not available. 
  6. b) Physico-chemical constants – Physico-chemical constants are important criteria of purity  of many pharmaceutical substances. Certain materials of indefinite or variable composition do  not respond well to chemical analysis and for these physical methods are of prime importance.  The pharmacopoeia attaches due importance to solubilities, determination of melting point,  distillation range/boiling point, weight per ml/ density/ specific gravity, viscosity and other  physical measurements. Chromatographic constants e.g. Rf values and retention time also serve  as a good constant.
  7. c) Acidity, alkalinity and pH – On account of incomplete purification of substances by  inappropriate and insufficient washings after their separation in acidic or alkaline media, some  degree of acidity or alkalinity may still remain in the final product. Further, solutions of certain  substances have a definite pH at a specified concentration. A deviation of pH from a normal  value in a given substance at the specified concentration will be indicative of the presence of incorporated impurities. 
  8. d) Anions and cations- On account of co-precipitation/post precipitation or adsorption  certain anions and/or cations often get included in the final product. Chloride, sulphate, iron,  lead, arsenic and heavy metals are few most common impurities and the pharmacopeia prescribes  general quantitative or limit tests of tolerance of the impurities. For other anions or cations  special tests of a quantitative nature are prescribed. 
  9. e) Moisture determination- Of some substances especially crude drugs provide valuable  information about purity of specified substances. 
  10. f) Insoluble residue- Pure substances generally give a clear solution in a proper solvent at a  specified concentration. Insoluble ingredients or impurities may make the solution cloudy, turbid  or opaque or even insoluble suspension. The measurement of turbidity or opalescence or  weighing the filtered the insoluble residue can serve as determination of the insoluble residue. 
  11. g) Loss on drying/ignition- On specified heating loss in weight upon drying or ignition also  serves as an useful index towards purity determination. 
  12. h) Ash, sulphate, ash, water insoluble ash- Determination of ash in crude vegetable drugs,  organic compounds and certain inorganic substances serves as a good indicator about the  presence of heavy metals or minerals. 
  13. i) Organic impurities and carbonisable substances- These are determined in the specified  substances as required in the monograph of the pharmacopoeia to ensure desired purity. 
  14. j) Other physic-chemical parameters- Such as swelling powder (e.g. bentonite, kaolin),  bulkiness (barium sulphate), sedimentation volume (bentonite), soluble matter (kaolin) and  stability of solution etc. also serves as parameters toward ensuring properties.

Question No. 06. Describe in detail the principle and procedure involved in limit test for arsenic  and sulphate.  

Ans. Limit test for Arsenic: Arsenic produces toxicity in the body therefore presence of arsenic,  as impurity in the drug is not desirable. Indian Pharmacopoeia prescribes the limit for presence of  arsenic as an impurity in various drugs.  

Principle: 1. The sample is dissolved in acid, which converts the arsenic impurity into arsenious  acid or arsenic acid depending upon the valency state of arsenic present in the sample.  

As3+ OH i.e. (H3AsO3)  

OH  

Trivalent Arsenious (Trivalent)  

Arsenic Acid  

OH  

5+ 

AsO = As OH i.e., (H3AsO4)  

OH  

Pentavalant Arsenic Arsenic (Pentavalant) Acid  

  1. The solution is then treated with reducing agents to convert the pentavalant arsenic acid into  trivalent arsenious acid.  

 OH OH  

  

O = As OH As OH i.e., (H3AsO3)  

 OH OH  

(Arsenic acid) (Arsenious acid)  

  1. Arsenious acid is then allow to reacts with nascent hydrogen [which is produced by Zn + HCl]  and  

converted into gaseous arsenious hydride (arsenious gas).  

H3 AsO3 + 3 H2 As H3 + 3 H2

(Arsenious acid) (Arsine Gas)  

  1. Arsine gas is carried through the tube by the stream of hydrogen and out through the mercuric  chloride  

paper. A reaction occurs between arsine and mercuric chloride which may be represented as  follows.  

2 As H3 + Hg Cl2 Hg (As H2)2 + 2HCl  

Yellow stain  

This results in the formation of a yellow or brown stain on the mercuric chloride paper.  

The intensity of standard and sample stain is compared. The intensity of test solution should not  be more  

than standard solution.  

Procedure of limit test  

Steps Test Solution Standard Solution  

  1. Place 50 ml of distilled water in the bottle of an Place 50 ml of distilled water in  the bottle of Arsenic test apparatus (as shown in the figure) another arsenic test  apparatus and label it as label as test preparation. standard preparation  
  2. Add 2.5 gm of ammonium chloride in the bottle Add 1 ml of arsenic standard  solution in the and  
  3. 10 gm of granulated zinc and fix all the Add 10 gm of granulated zinc and  fix all the fittings of the apparatus as shown in the figure fittings of the apparatus as  shown in the figure and allow standing for 40 minutes in dark. and allow standing  for 40 minutes in dark.  

Given substance passes the limit test if compare the yellow stain of test and standard preparation  in daylight  

as soon as possible after the test is completed. If the stain produced in the test is of low intensity  then  

standard preparation the test is passed.  

 

Limit test for Sulphates:- 

Principle: Limit test for sulphates depends upon the interaction of sulphates with barium chloride  in the  

presence of hydrochloric acid. This results in the precipitation sulphates as barium sulphates.  Hydrochloric  

acid is added to prevent precipitation of other acid radicals by common ion effect with barium  chloride  

solution so that less barium ions are formed and precipitation of other acid radicals such as  phosphate and  

oxalate is prevented. However in the presence of hydrochloric acid, only sulphates are precipitated.  Procedure of limit test:  

Steps Test Solution Standard Solution 

  1. Dissolve specified quantity of substances as  Place 1 ml. of 0.1089 w/v solution of  

given in monograph or prepare a solution as potassium sulphate in Nessler cylinder labeled  directed in individual monograph. In Nessler’s as “Standard” Add about 9 ml, of distilled  cylinder labeled as “Test”. Make up volume up  

water. 

to 10 ml.  

  1. Add 2 ml, of dilute hydrochloric acid. Add 2 ml, of dilute hydrochloric acid.  03. Dilute to 45 ml, with distilled water. Dilute to 45 ml, with distilled water.  
  2. Add 5ml of BaSO4 reagent. Add 5ml of BaSO4 reagent.  

Stir the test and standard solution and allow standing for 5 minutes. Compare the turbidity against  the dark  

background, if turbidity produce in standard is more than that in test, the sample compile limit test of  

sulphate as per I.P. 1985. Reaction will be as given below:  

BaCl2 + sulphates BaSO4 + Chlorides  

Question No. 07. Describe in detail the sources of impurities in pharmaceutical chemicals. Give  importance of quality control of the drugs.  

Ans. Sources of impurities: Chemical purity means freedom from foreign matters in any  pharmaceutical preparation. Pharmacopoeias fix limits of tolerance for certain impurities such as  arsenic, lead, heavy metals, and iron etc.  

The various sources of impurities are as follow:  

(a) Raw material: If impurities are present in raw material, which is used in preparation of  pharmaceutical chemicals then these impurities can be carried out during manufacturing  process to final product. For example copper sulphate is prepared by action of sulphuric acid  on copper turnings. 

Cu + 2 H2SO4 CuSO4 + 2 H2O + SO2  

Copper turning do contain iron and arsenic as impurities. These may be present in negligible  amount or in more amounts; it will go to final product. That is harmful. So, Indian Pharmacopoeia  (I.P.) prescribes the limit for these impurities and they should be not more than as prescribed limit.  

(b) Reagents used in manufacturing process: The Reagents that are used in manufacturing  process are not

completely removed by washing. These may still present in final product. For example precipitated  calcium 

carbonate prepared by inter-reaction of solution of calcium chloride and sodium carbonate  

CaCl2 + Na2 CO3 CaCO3 + 2 NaCl  

(Soluble) (Soluble) (Precipitates) (Soluble)  

The precipitates of calcium carbonate have to be washed thoroughly to remove excess sodium  carbonate and the soluble chlorides. If precipitates are not washed properly they may be present in  the final product as impurity. So Pharmacopoeia prescribes limits of tolerance for the soluble alkali.  

(c) Intermediate products in manufacturing process: Sometimes an intermediate substance is  produced 

during the manufacturing process may be carried through out to the final product. For example: – 6 KOH + 3I2 5 KI + KIO3 + 3H2O  

Potassium iodide is prepared by the interaction of potassium hydroxide and iodine. The resulting  solution is  

evaporated to dryness and the residue is heated with charcoal.  

KIO3+3C KI+3CO  

In this potassium iodate is an intermediate product and if it is not completely converted to  potassium iodide, then it may be present as impurity in the final product.  

(d) Defects in manufacturing process: Defects such as imperfect mixing, incompleteness of  reaction, nonmaintenance of absolute temperature, pressure, pH or reaction conditions etc  may results in the formation of  

chemical compounds with impurities. 

(e) Solvents: Water is the cheapest solvent and commonly used in manufacturing of  pharmaceutical preparations but sometimes if purification is not done then these impurities of  calcium, potassium,  

magnesium present in it and leads to impure product. 

(f) Action of solvent and reagent on reaction vessels: Some solvents and reagents may react with  metals of reaction vessel during manufacturing process and may dissolve these metals which  appear as impurities in

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final product. For example – Iron contains some amount of arsenic, when a preparation is made in  iron vessel, some arsenic and iron released out in preparation and impurity take place. Because of  that I.P prescribes the limit test for iron and arsenic.  

(g) Atmospheric contamination during the manufacturing process: Atmospheric condition  around the manufacturing process especially in the industrial area may contain dust particles,  some gases such as sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide etc. and black smoke. These impurities  may enter in the preparations during the manufacturing process and may result as impurity in the  final product. Further, some substances may contaminate with atmospheric air, or carbon dioxide  and water vapors during their preparation, for example, sodium hydroxide readily absorb carbon  dioxide from the atmosphere and results in the formation of sodium carbonate as impurity.  Therefore sodium hydroxide should not be exposed to atmosphere during  

its manufacturing. 

(h) Adulteration: Some of the pharmaceutical substances, which are expensive, may be  adulterated with the cheaper chemical deliberately, for example, potassium bromide is  adulterated with sodium bromide, as  

former is expensive than the later. 

(i) Defective storage of final products: Some pharmaceutical undergo decomposition  (Physical/ Chemical/ Biological) if the final product is not preserved under the prescribed  conditions. For example, Iodine reacts with the cork, rubber and with some metals and these  substances may be extracted in the final product as impurities; therefore iodine shall be preserved  in the glass container with glass stopper. 

Importance of quality control: Quality control is vital in case of drugs and pharmaceuticals. There  cannot be any compromise in this regard and one cannot even think of any second quality in drugs  and pharmaceuticals. Standard for drugs and methods of quality control are monographed in  pharmacopoeia which are official publications made in various countries. For example in our  country “Indian Pharmacopoeia” is official and substances which are prepared and purified  keeping in view the requirements of Indian pharmacopoeia and these when tested or analyzed,  must confirm to the standards of quality prescribed for them. 

Question No. 08. Define electrolyte replacement therapy. What are the role of major intra and extra  cellular electrolytes? Explain the preparation, properties and uses of sodium chloride.  

Ans. Electrolytes: These are those substances which are used to improve or correct the imbalance  of intracellular and extra cellular ions in body for normal metabolism  

Electrolytes are classified as: Electrolytes  

Extracellular Intracellular  

Sodium ions Phosphate  

Chloride ions Potassium  

Magnesium  

Role of extracellular electrolytes:  

Sodium ion (Na+): It maintain normal hydration and osmotic pressure, buffer constituent, acid base balance, cell membrane permeability, muscle contraction, carbon dioxide transport,  transmission of nerve impulses in nerve fibers. It is completely and readily absorbed, excreted in  sweat and urine. Low serum Na+ may occur with extreme loss of urine in diabetes leads to  condition hyponatremia. High serum Na+level  

may occur in Cushing’s syndrome leads to condition hypernatremia.  

Chloride ion (Cl): It maintains proper hydration, osmotic pressure, normal electrolyte balance,  acid-base balance and gastric HCl. It is obtained from common table salt and animal foods. It is  completely absorbed, eliminates from blood by glomerular filtration and possibly reabsorbed by  the kidney. Due to kidney diseases, diabetes and prolonged vomiting leads to deficiency of Cl,  condition is known as hypochloremia. 

Excessive Cl intake leads to condition hyperchloremia.  

Role of Intracellular Electrolytes:  

Phosphate ion (HPO42-and H2PO4): It is predominant constituent of bones, teeth, HPO42 /H2PO4buffer, cell phosphoproteins, phospholipids and cofactors of ATP, NAD, and FAD etc. It  is obtained from milk and milk products, whole grains, legumes and egg yolk. It is easily absorbed 

from intestines and excreted mainly through urine. Excess and deficiency leads to condition  hyperphosphatemia and hypophosphatemia respectively.  

Potassium (K+): It maintains acid-base and water balance. It is a buffer constituent, help in muscle contraction, membrane transport and carbon dioxide transport. It is obtained from fruits,  vegetables, legumes and meat. It is rapidly absorbed, excreted by kidneys. Excess and deficiency  leads to condition hyperkalemia and hypokalemia respectively.  

Magnesium (Mg2+): It is essential component of several enzymes involving phosphate  metabolism, constituent of bones, teeth, help in protein synthesis and smooth functioning of  neuromuscular function. 

Sodium Chloride  

Chemical formula: NaCl  

Properties: It is colorless crystals or white crystalline powder. It is odorless but possesses saline  taste. It is freely soluble in water, soluble in glycerin and slightly soluble in alcohol.  

Preparation:  

(I) From rock salt- Sodium chloride is manufactured from underground rock salt deposits. Bore  holes are drilled and water is run down to the rock salt straight. This dissolves sodium chloride to  form its solution. The resultant clear saturated brine is then pumped above to the surface. This is  then evaporated in triple effect evaporators to obtain sodium chloride.  

(ii) From seawater: It is well known that seawater contains salts especially sodium chloride.  Common salt has been manufactured from hundreds of years by evaporation of seawater in shallow  pans or shallow tanks.  

poisoning). 18  

  1. It is used as antiseptic & astringent as externally in powder & in lotions.  3. A 0.25% solution used as an ophthalmic astringent.  

(e) Zinc Chloride:  

Synonym: Butter of Zinc

Chemical formula: ZnCl2  

Physical and chemical properties: It is white or nearly white, odourless crystalline granules .It  may also be found as porcelain- like masses or moulded into cylinders. It is highly deliquescent.  It is very soluble in water and freely soluble in alcohol and glycerine. Usually its solution in  water or in alcohol is slightly turbid due to the formation of zinc oxychloride.  

Storage: It should be stored in air tight containers.  

Uses:  

  1. It is used antiseptic, astringent to skin and mucous membrane.  
  2. It is used topically dentin desensitizer.  
  3. It is also used as mouthwashes for its antiseptic property.  
  4. It is used in ulcers.  

Question No. 10. What are Antidotes? Explain their mechanism & discuss cyanide poisoning in  detail?  

Ans. A poison may be defined as any substance administered in whatever way (be mouth,  infection, inhalation through skin or mucous membrane contact) produces ill- health, disease or  death. An antidote is an agent that counteracts a poison. On the basis of mechanism of action,  antidotes have been classified as (i)  

Physiological antidote (ii) Mechanical antidote (iii) Chemical antidote  

1) Physiological antidote: Which counteract the effect of a poison by producing other  effect, e.g. sodium nitrite, which converts heamoglobin into methaemoglobin in order to bind  cyanide? 

2) Chemical antidote: Which change the chemical nature of poison, e.g. sodium  thiosulphate, which convert the systemically toxic cyanide into non toxic thiocyanate and  sodium or calcium edentate which is a chelating agent used for heavy metal poisoning.

3) Mechanical antidote: Which prevent absorption of poison into the body e.g. (i) Activated  charcoal, which adsorbs the poison prior to adsorption across the intestinal wall, (ii) copper  sulphate which inactivate and precipitate the toxic material as insoluble salts? 

Cyanide Poisoning: It requires special attention because it may occur by number of ways such as  inhalation hydrocyanic acid, like fumigates or from the ingestion of soluble inorganic cyanide  salt or cyanide releasing substances like cyanamide, cyanogens chloride, seeds of chokecberry,  peach and other. Consumption of 300 mg of potassium cyanide may cause death.  

Signs & symptoms: Nausea, drowsiness, dizziness, headache, hypotension, coma, convulsion &  death. Death may occur within minute of inhalation of hydrogen cyanide while oral ingestion  causes death in several hours.  

Process of cyanide poisoning in the body: Cyanide readily combine with ferric ion (Fe3+) of  cytochrome oxidase which prevent electron transfer & thus stops the cellular respiration or  oxidation reduction reaction.  

Treatment: Sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulphate finds special place in the treatment of cyanide poisoning. Firstly injection of sodium nitrite is given which cause the oxidation of the ferrous  (Fe2+) ion of haemoglobin to the ferric ion of methaemoglobin. The methaemoglobin so formed  then combines with serum cyanide that has not yet entered in the cell, to produce  cyanmethaemoglobin. After 5 minutes, a slow intravenous infusion of sodium thiosulphate (50  ml in 10 minutes) is given. The thiosulphate ions react with cyanide ions set free owing to slow  dissociation of cyanmethaemoglobin and form non-toxic thiocyanate ions. Usual dose & Antidote  in cyanide poisoning used are:  

  1. Sodium Nitrite – 10 to 15 ml of 3% solution intravenously.  
  2. Sodium thiosulphate – 1g (range 500 mg to 2 g) in a 5 -10% solution intravenously.  

Question No. 11. (a) Define anions and cations. Describe identification test for Na+, K+, Ca++, Cl

SO4– –and HCO3.  

(b) Describe limit test for Iron.  

Ans. (a) Cations may be defined as an atom gives its electrons to high electronegative atom and  it changes in to cations. For example: K+, Ca++.  

Anions may be defined as an atom which accept electrons from less electronegative atoms and  change into anion. For example: Cl-, SO4- – 

Identification test for:  

  1. Sodium (Na+): Dissolve the substance (0.1 g) in the water (2ml) and add potassium carbonate  (2ml, 15% w/v) and boil the solution, no precipitates are formed. To this add freshly prepared  potassium antimonate solution (4 ml) and boil. Cool and scratch the sides of the test tube to  give a dense, white precipitates is formed.  

NaCl + KH2 SbO4 NaH2SbO4 + KCl  

Potassium Sod. pyroantimonate  

Antimonate (white ppt.)  

  1. Potassium (K+): (i) An aqueous solution of the substance is acidified with dilute acetic acid  (1ml). On addition of a freshly prepared solution of sodium cobalt nitrate (10% w/v) an  orange yellow ppt is formed immediately. 

2 KCl + Na3 [CO (NO2)]6 K3Na [CO(NO)2] 6 + 3NaCl  

Sodium cobalt Nitrate Yellow ppt .  

  1. Calcium (Ca2+): Dissolve a sample of the substance in minimum quantity of dilute HCl acid  and neutralize with dilute sodium hydroxide solution or use 5 ml of the prescribed solution; 

add 5ml of ammonium carbonate solution; a white precipitate is formed which, after boiling  and cooling the mixture ,is only sparingly soluble in ammonium chloride solution. 

CaCl2 + (NH4)2CO3 2NH4Cl + CaCO3 (white ppt.)  

  1. Chlorides (Cl): Aqueous solution of substance containing chloride is acidified with dilute  HNO3 and 

treated with silver nitrate solution, when a cruddy white precipitates of silver chloride is formed. NaCl + AgNO3 AgCl + NaNO3  

White precipitates  

  1. Sulphate (SO4): Dissolve a little amount of the substance in dilute HCl and add barium  chloride  

solution (1 ml). A white precipitates of barium sulphate in formed. 

Na SO + BaCl2 BaSO4 + 2 NaCl  

White precipitates  

  1. Bicarbonates (HCO3): (i) When a solution containing bicarbonate is boiled, CO2 is evolved  

which can be passed in lime water to give a white ppt of calcium carbonate boil. Heat  

2NaHCO3 Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O  

Ans. (b) Limit test for Iron: Limit test of iron depends upon the interaction of thioglycollic acid  with iron  

in the presence of citric acid in the ammoniacal alkaline medium. This results in the formation of  purple  

colored ferrous salt of thioglycollic acid. 

Citric acid  

2 HSCH2COOH + Fe++ Fe (HSCH2COO) 2 2H+  

Thioglycollic acid ferrous thioglycollate  

  1. Thioglycollic acid converts the iron impurities, if present, from the ferric form to ferrous  form.  
  2. Thioglycollic acid forms the purple color with the ferrous form of iron in the ammoniacal  alkaline medium.  

Note: All the reagents/solutions used in the test must be free from iron:  

Procedure of limit test of iron 

Steps Test Solution Standard Solution  

  1. Dissolve 1gm of test preparation (Sodium Dissolve 2 ml of standard iron solution (20  ppm) in Chloride) in 40 ml of distilled water in about 40 ml of distilled water in a Nessler  cylinder Nessler cylinder and label it as test and label it as standard solution. solution.  
  2. Add 2 ml of 20% solution of Iron free Add 2 ml of 20% solution of Iron free citric  acid. citric acid.  
  3. Add 0.1 ml of Thioglycollic acid. Add 0.1 ml of Thioglycollic acid.  
  4. Make the solution alkaline with iron free Make the solution alkaline with iron free  ammonia ammonia solution. solution.  
  5. Dilute up to 50 ml mark with distilled Dilute up to 50 ml mark with distilled  water, stir it water, stir it with the help of glass rod and with the help of glass rod and  allow to stand for 5 allow to stand for 5 minutes minutes.  

.  

Compare the purple colors in the two Nessler cylinders by viewing vertically downward, if the  intensity of purple color in standard is more than that in test, the sample complies with limit test  of iron. 

Question No. 12. Write short note on the following:  

(a) Antimicrobials (b) Astringents (c) Protective and adsorbent (d) Antioxidants (e) Expectorant  and  

Emetics  

Ans. (a) Antimicrobials: Antimicrobials are the agents used to destroy or inhibit the growth of  pathogenic micro-organisms. They are normally ineffective in the sporing state of micro organisms. But they may apply to the skin, body membranes and cavities. The disinfectants are  employed for the application to inanimate objects and materials to get them rid of micro organisms. An antiseptic is applied before all invasive procedure; antiseptics are also applied  prophylactically to hands of surgeons, dentists, nurses and other others in their routine procedures.  Sterilization is the complete destruction of all living micro-organisms, including bacterial spores.  

It can be achieved by physical method and by chemical (disinfectants). Example:  Potassium permanganate (KMnO4), Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)  

Potassium permanganate  

Chemical formula: KMnO4  

Properties: It is a dark purple or brownish black granule that is odourless and soluble in water.  Neutral or alkaline solution produces brown precipitate of manganese dioxide  

Preparation: Manganese dioxide is fused with excess of potassium hydroxide in the presence of  free supply 

of air or with the addition of some suitable oxidizing agent such as potassium nitrate or potassium  chloride.  

2 KMn O4 + H2O 2 Mn O2 + 2 KOH + 3 [O]  

Uses: It is a strong oxidizing agent and is used for disinfectant, deodorant, gargles and  mouthwashes.  

(b) Astringent: Astringents are locally applied protein precipitate and reduce the cell permeability. Astringents are used as 

  1. To check diarrhea.  
  2. Styptic: to arrest haemorrhage by promoting coagulation of blood and constricting small  capillaries.  
  3. To constrict pores on the skin. 
  4. Promote healing and harden the skin.  

Example: Alum, Zinc sulphate  

moisture and therefore also act as cutaneous desiccants. An ideal protective should be:- (1) Insoluble in water (2) Chemically inert (3) Biologically inert (4) Available as fine particles  

Protective and adsorbent is maximized with decreasing particle size because small particles offer  a large surface area. Protective are generally used as dusting powders, suspension containing  insoluble protective substance as lotions, ointments and creams. Some of the inorganic protective compounds and preparation described here: Example: Talc, Zinc oxide, Calamine, Zinc stearate,  Titanium dioxide,  

Talc  

Synonym: Purified talc, Talcum, Soap stone  

Chemical formula: 3MgO 4SiO2. H2O it is naturally occurring hydrated magnesium silicate and  is called 

soapstone or French chalk.  

Properties: It is a very fine white powder adheres to skin and free from grittiness, greasy to touch, odourless, tasteless. It insoluble in water, dilute acids or alkalies.  

Uses:  

  1. It is a dusting powder, medicated with zinc oxide or boric acid.  
  2. It should not be applied on broken skin wounds or surgical gloves because it causes toxicity.  3. It is used as filtering media.  
  3. Talc also used as lubricant and as excipient in preparations of pills and tablets.  

Adsorbent: Adsorbents are the substances that are used to absorb the undesirable substances on  its surface. It is used in accidental or intentional poisoning, diarrhoea, sugar clarification and food  poisoning. Adsorbent used internally for gastrointestinal irritation are different compounds.  Example: light kaolin, activated charcoal. 

(d) Anti-Oxidants: An antioxidant is an agent, which is added in any preparation to prevent  oxidation and deterioration of the product. It is based on oxidation-reduction or redox reactions.  Antioxidant should be handled with strong oxidizing agents. Examples are:- 

  1. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) 
  2. Sodium bisulphate (NaHSO4)  
  3. Sodium metabisulphate (Na2SO5)  
  4. Sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3.5H2O)  
  5. Sodium nitrite (NaNO2)  

They act by two mechanisms: – 

  1. Antioxidant is oxidized in place of active constituents.  
  2. If active constituents are oxidized, anti oxidant reduce it back to normal.  Example: Sulphur Dioxide  

Sulphur Dioxide  

Chemical formula: SO2  

Properties: It is colourless, non-flammable and an irritant odour. It forms addition product with  halogen in presence of sunlight or camphor. It is a good reducing agent. It is stable even at high  temperature & does not burn or support combustion in presence of catalyst and with the  combination of oxygen it forms sulphur trioxide. It also gives reaction with halogens.  

SO2 + Cl2 SO2 Cl2 [Sulphuryl chloride]  

SO2 + F2 SO2 F2 [Sulphuryl fluoride]  

Uses:  

  1. Mainly use as antioxidant.  
  2. Sulphur dioxide is gaseous in nature. Hence used in single dose injectables as antioxidants. 
  3. Sulphur dioxide in glycerine is used for sour throat, tonsillitis and skin infections.  

(e) Expectorant and Emetics  

Expectorants: Expectorants are the drugs used to help in removal of exudate from trachea, bronchi  or lungs, & hence they are used in treatment of cough. They act by two ways.  

  1. By decreasing the viscosity of bronchial secretion and facilitating their elimination.  2. By increasing the amount the respiratory tract fluid. E.g. Ammonium chloride NH Cl and  Potassium iodide KI.  

Ammonium Chloride:  

Synonym: Amchlor  

Chemical formula: NH4Cl  

Preparation: It is prepared by neutralizing acid with ammonia.  

NH3 + HCl NH4Cl  

Physical properties: It is a colourless or white crystalline powder, odourless, and saline in test.  Freely 

soluble in water and 5% solution is acidic.  

Uses: It is used an expectorant, diuretics in lead poisoning and systemic acidifier in treatment of  urinary infection.  

Emetics: These are the agents, which are induces vomiting by produce irritation of G.I.T muscle  and produce vomiting, example is antimony potassium tartarate. Some time its low dose is used  in cough preparations. They probably stimulate flow of respiratory tract secretions. Emetics  should not be use in condition of CNS depression, shock and in pregnancy e.g. antimony  potassium tartarate.  

Antimony potassium tartarate  

Synonym: Antimony Pot. Tartarate  

Chemical formula: C4H4KO7Sbk.1/2 H2O  

Preparation: It is prepared by mixing antimony trioxide [Sb2O3] with potassium acid tartarate in the  ratio of 

5: 6. The paste is made and kept aside for 24 hrs. Which is then boiled with water and liquid is  filtered while  

hot. Sb2O3 + 2 C4H4O6KH 2 C4 H4 O7Sbk + H2O  

Physical properties: It is a white crystalline powder, odourless, sweet in taste and soluble in 17  parts of water and insoluble in alcohol  

Uses:  

  1. It is used as emetics also in Kala Azar disease gives by I.V. route, it should never be given by  I.M  

because causes severe pain.  

  1. It also use in cough syrups in low dose.  

Question No. 13. Discuss in brief the dental products.  

Ans. Due to the habits of chewing betel leaves, tobacco and pan masala etc. common problems  associated with teeth are formation of cavities, reduction of shining over teeth. These problems  are overcome by the use of anti-caries agents, dentifrices and polishing agents.  

Common local dental products are:- 

  1. i) Anti-caries agents: Dental carries occur due to action of lactic acid obtained from bacterial  metabolism of dietary carbohydrates. The various anti carries agents are following (i) Sodium  fluoride (ii) Stannous 

fluoride  

  1. ii) Dentifrices and polishing agents: It is also called cleaning agents. They are mixed with  desensitizer and with polishing agents. Desensitizers used are strontium chloride and zinc  chloride. The polishing agent used is calcium carbonate.

iii) Abrasives: They are used by the dentist in cleaning & polishing teeth e.g. pumice cavities  i.e. dental cements. 

  1. iv) Desensitizers: They decrease hypersensitivity of teeth when applied on their surface e.g.  ammonical silver nitrate solution. 
  2. v) Mouth wash: They are antiseptics medicated liquids use for cleaning the mouth e.g. hydrogen  peroxide. 

Examples of dental products are:- 

(i) Sodium fluoride (NaF) (ii) Calcium carbonate ( CaCo3) (iii) Dicalcium phosphate (iv) Zinc  chloride (Zncl2).  

Sodium fluoride:- 

Chemical formula: NaF  

Preparation: It is prepared by passing hydrogen fluoride into a solution of sodium carbonate.  Properties: It is colourless, odourless, soluble in water and practically insoluble in alcohol.  Usual dose: 2.2 mg once a day for adults.  

Use:  

  1. It is use for dental caries.  
  2. It may be added to water supplies.  
  3. 20% solutions in water may be applied to children teeth.  

Question 14 Define the buffer solution? How many types of buffer solution are there? Explain. 

Ans. 14 Buffer solutions are defined as those solutions which are able to resists the change in pH  value.  

Buffer solution consists of a mixture of a weak acid or weak base and their salt respectively:- There are many type of Buffer solution:  

1) Acidic buffer 2) Basic buffer 3) Neutral buffer  

Acidic buffer solution: The solution having a mixture of weak acid and its salt. For example:  mixture of acetic acid and sodium acetate.  

Basic buffer solutions: The solution having a mixture of weak base and its salt. For example:  mixture of ammonium hydroxide and ammonium chloride.  

Neutral buffer solution: The solution having a mixture of weak acid or weak base. For example:  mixture of acetic acid and ammonium hydroxide. .  

Question No.15. Write down:- 

(a) Chemical formula and use of laughing gas (b) Pharmaceutical uses of nitrogen (c)  Composition of soda lime (d) Buffer capacity (e) Temperature range for storage of drugs  under cold condition and cool condition (f) Differentiate very soluble and freely soluble  salts.  

.  

)  

l  

r

a  

d  

s  

f  

g  

s  

Chemical formula: N2

Uses: It is used by inhalation for operation of short duration like dental extractions, minor  operations of boils and abscesses. It is often used in conjunction with local anaesthetics and muscle  relaxants.  

(b) Pharmaceutical uses of nitrogen  

1) Nitrogen can be used to protect chemicals, reagents and pharmaceuticals from air oxidation by  displacing the air in the reaction vessels and containers, e.g. cod liver oil, olive oil and castor  oil etc.  

2) Liquid nitrogen is used in food- freezing process, and in laboratory as a coolant.  3) Liquid nitrogen is used in cryoscopic surgery to remove some tumours.  

4) Other uses of nitrogen are in manufacture of ammonia, nitric acid, nitrates, cyanindes,  explosives etc.  

5) It is also used to replace air in containers of parentrals, solution for topical applications and  injections. 

(c) Composition of soda lime  

The main components of the soda lime are 

  1. Calcium hydroxide Ca (OH)2 (about 75%)  
  2. Water, H2O (about 20%)  
  3. Sodium hydroxide, NaoH (about3%)  
  4. Potassium hydroxide, KOH (about 1%)  

Uses:- (i) It is used as pharmaceutical aid for adjusting pH of solutions.  

(ii) Sodium hydroxide is a powerful caustic and has been used to remove warts. Its 2.5% solution  in glycerol may be used as a solvent for removing superficial skin.  

(d)Buffer capacity: Buffer solution resist change in pH upon the addition of strong acids or  strong bases. The buffering action is measured in terms of buffer capacity. Buffer capacity is  defined as the moles of strong acid or strong base required to change the pH of one litre of  buffer solution by one unit. 

(e) Temperature range for storage of drugs under cold condition and cool condition:  

Cold: Any temperature not exceeding 8°C and usually between 2°C and 8°C will provide cold  conditions. A refrigerator is a cold place in which the temperature is maintained thermostatically  between 2°c to 8°c.  

Cool: Any temperature between 8°C and 25°C will provide cool conditions. An article for which  storage in a cool place is directed, may alternatively be stored in a refrigerator, unless otherwise  specified in the individual monograph  

(f) Differentiate very soluble and freely soluble salts  

Solubility- According to I.P 2010, solubilities of the substance at 1 to 30°C are mentioned in the  following terms: 

Very soluble: A substance is said to be very soluble, if volume of solvent required for dissolving 1 part of solute is less than 1 part.  

Freely soluble: A substance is said to be freely soluble, if volume of solvent required for dissolving  1 part of solute is less than 1 to 10 parts.  

Question No. 16. Write storage condition of following compounds: iodine, normal saline  solution, chlorinated lime, sodium hydroxide & also explain the reason.  

Ans. Iodine- It should be stored in well- closed bottles fitted with glass stoppers because iodine is  volatile and its vapours reacts both cork and rubber.  

Normal saline solution: – It should be stored in tightly closed containers as it absorbs moisture.  Solutions on storage may cause the separation of small solid glass particles from glass containers.  Solution containing such particles must not be used and should be discarded.  

Chlorinated lime: – It should be stored in tightly closed containers because on exposure to air, it  slowly decomposes with the loss of chlorine. This change is due to the action of atmospheric  carbon dioxide and moisture.  

Sodium hydroxide: – As it is highly deliquescent and as it also readily absorbs carbon dioxide  from air, therefore, it must be stored in tightly closed containers. The stoppers of glass may get  jammed due to the formation of sodium silicate. Hence, non-reactive glass or plastic materials are  to be preferred.  

Question No.17. (a) Write note on physiological acid base balance.  

Ans. (a) Physiological acid-base balance  

All body fluids have definite pH values which must be maintained within relatively narrow limits.  The normal range of pH values of few selected fluids are:  

Blood 7.4-7.5 Duodenal fluid 5.5- 7.5 

Saliva 6.4-7.4 Gall bladder bile 5.5-7.5  Urine 4.5-8.0 Gastric juice 1.5-1.8  

There are three regulatory mechanisms which maintain the pH of the each system and equilibrium  with one another. These are – 

(1) Buffer (2) Respiratory mechanism (3) Renal regulation  

(1) Buffers: Buffers are the chemical systems capable of maintaining a constant pH, e.g.  phosphates, 

bicarbonates and some proteins which are able to bind free H+or OH ion and prevent a change in  pH. Three major systems of buffering in the body are 

  1. i) Carbonic acid/ bicarbonate which mainly occurs in plasma and kidney.  ii) Monohydrogen phosphate / dihydrogen phosphate found in cells and kidney.  iii) Protein buffer system.  

Proteins are composed of amino acids bound together by peptide linkage. 

(2) Respiratory mechanism: When respiration is decreased, there is an accumulation of CO2 in  the body 

which uses up the alkali reserve of the blood resulting in the acidosis. On the other hand, if there  is overbreathing which results in excessive excretion of CO2, the condition of alkalosis may be  develop. Thus, acidity and CO2 increases are both powerful stimulants of respiratory mechanisms  and cause an increase in the rate and depth of respiration. The H2CO3 is converted to CO2 and  water the CO2 rapidly breathed out. On the other hand, an increase in base, leads to a decrease in  acidity and H2CO3 content.  

(3) Renal regulation: Kidneys have the ability to form ammonia which combines with the acids  produced during metabolism and is excreted in the urine. The pH of urine is highly variable  between 4.8 to 8.0.

Disturbance in acid- base balance- The buffer, respiratory and excretory systems of the body work  together to maintain the acid-base balance of the body, so that the pH range of various body fluids  remain within normal but narrow limits. A primary defect in elimination of CO2 or a metabolic  disorder can lead to alteration of pH of blood beyond physiological limits and these disturbances  in acid-base balance are classified accordingly.  

(1) Respiratory acidosis: The H2CO3 content of plasma is increased due to interference with the  elimination of CO2 by lungs. This occurs mainly in conditions such as congestive heart  failure, pneumonia and poisoning with barbiturates or narcotic drugs which depress the  respiratory centre. 

(2) Respiratory alkalosis: There is a fall of H2CO3 level of plasma due to hyperventilation in the  lungs. This 

occurs mainly in fever, anoxia, salicylate poisoning and at high altitudes. 

(3) Metabolic acidosis: The HCO3fraction of plasma is lowered in conditions such as renal  failure, diabetes 

mellitus and severe dehydration due to diarrhea and vomiting. Compensation to some extent in  initial stages occurs by increased respiration whereby more CO2 is eliminated to maintain the  HCO3/H2CO3 ratio.  

(4) Metabolic alkalosis: An increase in the bicarbonate content of plasma due to ingestion of  large volume of alkalis in the treatment of peptic ulcer and vomiting due to high intestinal  obstruction are the two main causes. Compensation to some extent is attempted by a  depression of respiration and an excretion of alkaline urine by kidneys. 

  

Question No.18 (a) Write down the theory of limit test for chloride.  

(b) Name four official compounds of calcium and explain physiological roles of calcium in  human body. 

Ans. (a) Limit test for chloride:- Limit test for chloride depends upon the interaction of chlorides  with silver nitrate in the presence of nitric acid. This results in the precipitation of chloride as silver  chloride. When only small quantity of chloride ions are present, silver chloride appears as  opalescence and not as precipitate.  

Limit test for chlorides in magnesium sulphate I.P  

Test Standard 

  1. Take 8.0 ml of solution A (prepared by dissolving 1. To take 10 ml of chloride standard  solution (25 5.0 g  

in sufficient carbon dioxide free water and ppm Cl). (This is prepared by diluting 5 volumes of  

transfer it to a nessler cylinder labeled as test. 0.0824 percent w/v solution of sodium chloride to  100 volumes with water.)  

  1. Add 10 ml of dilute nitric acid. 2. Add 10 ml of dilute nitric acid.  
  2. Dilute to 50 ml mark with distilled water. 3. Dilute to 50 ml mark with distilled water.  
  3. Add 1 ml of 0.1 M solution of silver nitrate. 4. Add 1 ml of 0.1 M solution of silver  nitrate.  

Chlorides present in pharmaceutical substance in very small quantities as an impurity and,  therefore silver chloride appears as opalescence which is compared under uniform condition of  illumination with standard opalescence in nessler cylinder.  

Chlorides + AgNO3 AgCl + Nitrates  

Ans. (b) Physiological role of calcium in human body:- Calcium is one of the essential elements  required for various functions of body. About 90% of the body calcium is found in bones as 

calcium carbonate and phosphate. The ionic form of calcium is involved in the various  physiological activities. The calcium ions are essential for maintenance of some the important  body functions for example:  

  1. The cation is essential for normal functioning of automatic nervous system and voluntary  systems.  
  2. Calcium is necessary for normal cardiac function.  
  3. It is important factor in coagulation of blood and cell membrane permeability.  4. It is important for the formation of certain tissues and bones.  

When the deficiency of ionized calcium in blood, the condition is known as hypocalcaemia.  The official compounds of calcium are discussed below:  

  1. Calcium acetate  

Chemical formula: C4H6CaO4  

Properties: It is a white powder almost colourless and hygroscopic in nature. It is soluble in water  but slightly soluble in alcohol.  

Storage: As it is hygroscopic in nature, it is kept in a well closed container in dry place.  

Uses: It is one of the ingredients of solutions used for haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. The haemodialysis solutions are solutions of electrolytes in concentration similar to those of normal  extracellular body fluids and glucose may be included in such formulations.  

  1. Calcium gluconate  

Chemical formula: C12H22O14Ca.H2O  

Properties: It occurs as a white crystalline powder or as white granules. It is odourless and almost  tasteless. It is slowly soluble in cold water but is freely soluble in boiling water. It is insoluble in  alcohol.  

Storage: It should be stored in well close container. 

Uses: It is used as a calcium replenisher. It is an important source of calcium in the treatment of hypocalcaemic tetany and in other calcium deficiency conditions stated under introduction. It administered orally as tablets and in the form of injections. Calcium gluconate tablets are used  extensively in supplementing the diet of convalescent and expectant mothers.  

  1. Calcium hydroxide  

Chemical formula: Ca (OH)

Properties: – It is soft white powder with an alkaline and slightly bitter taste readily absorbs carbon  dioxide from air forming calcium carbonate. It is sparingly soluble in water. It is much more  soluble in solutions of sugar and of glycerol, but is insoluble in alcohol.  

Storage:- It should be stored in air tight containers to prevent its interaction with atmospheric  carbon dioxide.  

Uses: – Calcium hydroxide is an antacid and astringent. It is given orally as solutions which, when  added to milk, prevents the formation of large clot of curd in the stomach. As an astringent, it is  extensively used by betel leaf chewers. Its carbon dioxide absorbing property is useful in certain  types of gas-traps.  

  1. Calcium carbonate  

Chemical formula: CaCO3  

Properties: It is a fine white, micro crystalline powder, odourless and tasteless. It is stable in air. It  is nearly insoluble in water and alcohol.  

Uses: It acts as non- systemic antacid. It produces a rapid onset of action. The antacid is due to its  basic property and is not of atmospheric nature as of aluminium compounds. It is also used  dentifrices.  

Question no. 19. What is the principle of Geiger muller counter?  

Answer: Geiger- Muller counter- It is one of the oldest radiation detector types in existence,  having been introduced by Geiger and Muller in 1928. It is referred to as G-M couter or simply  tube. The simplicity, low cost and of ease of operation of these detector have lead to their 

continued use to the present time. They detected α, β and γ radiations. It consists of a cylinder  made up of stainless steel or glass coated with silver on the inner side which acts as cathode.  Coaxially inside the tube a mounted fine were works as an anode. It is having the mixture of  ionizing gas which contains a small proportion quenching vapour. The functions of quenching  vapour are to prevent the false pulse and to absorb the photons emitted by excited atoms and  molecules returning to their ground state.Chlorine, bromine, ethyl alcohol and ethyl formate are  commonly used quenching agents. Radiation when enters the tube through a thin section of outer  wall causes ionization of atoms of the gas. When a high voltage is maintained between two  electrodes, the electrons and charged ions are attracted by the anode and cathode respectively.  Each particle of radition produces a brief flow or pulse of current which can b

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